Glossary of Terms

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Term Definition

The need for patients to get up at night on a regular basis to urinate. A period of sleep must precede and follow the urinary episode for it to count as a nocturnal void. Nocturia is often described as the most bothersome of all urinary symptoms and is also one of the most common. Nocturia can be associated with long-term sleep deprivation, in addition to the inconvenience that it causes. Many patients are reluctant to mention nocturia to their providers or mistakenly believe it is a normal part of aging.


A lump or growth that may or may not be malignant (cancer).


Not cancer. Nonmalignant tumors may grow larger but do not spread to other parts of the body. Also called benign.


Involves the surgical removal of the testicals.


A medical doctor who has special training in identifying diseases by studying cells and tissues under a microscope.

Pathology report

A medical report that describes the characteristics of a tissue specimen that is taken from a patient. The pathology report is written by a pathologist, a doctor who has special training in identifying diseases by studying cells and tissues under a microscope. A pathology report includes identifying information (such as the patient’s name, birthdate, and biopsy date) and details about where in the body the specimen is from and how it was obtained. It typically includes a gross description (a visual description of the specimen as seen by the naked eye), a microscopic description, and a final diagnosis. It may also include a section for comments by the pathologist. The pathology report provides the definitive cancer diagnosis. It is also used for staging (describing the extent of cancer within the body, especially whether it has spread) and to help plan treatment.

Pelvic lymph node

A lymph node in the pelvis. The pelvis is the area of the body below the abdomen that contains the hip bones, bladder, rectum, and male or female reproductive organs. Pelvic lymph nodes drain and filter lymph from the pelvis and nearby areas. In cancer, pelvic lymph nodes that are near a tumor may be removed by surgery to check for signs that cancer has spread.

Pelvic Node Dissection

A form of immunotherapy.


The PET and CT scans are done at the same time with the same machine. The combined scans give more detailed pictures of areas inside the body than either scan gives by itself.

Photodynamic therapy

A laser energy to activate drugs in the prostate that then kills the cells nearby.


A substance or intervention that looks the same and is used or taken the same way as the active drug that is being tested.

Pluvicto (lutetium-177)

A type of radiation therapy in which a radioactive isotope is bound to a molecule that will attach to cancer cells that express PSMA, allowing the radiation to damage or kill these cells. Pluvicto is administered intravenously.


The likely outcome or course of a disease; the chance of recovery or recurrence.


The spreading or worsening of cancer in the body.


A walnut-shaped gland that produces fluid for semen. Located between the base of the penis and the rectum.